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  1. It is worth to check the C and C++ standard updates regarding the new and obsolete features, the future trend and getting the standard references. The following paragraphs give brief information about C, C++ and other related standards. For full information please visit their websites.

  2. The ISO/IEC (International Organization for Standardization/ The International Electrotechnical Commission) Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces documentation can be obtained at ISO/IEC Programming Language Standard Documentation. The related documentations are:


    ISO/IEC 9899:1999           - C.

    ISO/IEC 9899:2018           - Latest C.

    ISO/IEC 14882:2003         - C++.

    ISO/IEC 14882:2017         - Latest C++.

    ISO/IEC 9945-1:2003       - POSIX, Part 1.

    ISO/IEC 9945-2:2003       - POSIX, Part 2.

    ISO/IEC 9945-3:2003       - POSIX, Part 3.

    ISO/IEC 9945-4:2003       - POSIX, Part 4.

    ISO/IEC 23270:2003         - C#

    ISO/IEC 23270:2006         - Latest C#







  1. Freely Available Standards ISO/IEC Standard can be found at iso.org.

  2. Take note that the C# standard is available in ISO/IEC but not Java (Sun Microsystems).  WG was standardization Working Group of the SC which is a SubCommittee of the JTC1, a Joint TechnicalCommittee of ISO and IEC.  SC22 (SubCommittee 22) is the international standardization subcommittee for programming languages, their environmentsand system software interfaces.  Their web site is available at http://www.open-std.org/. It is worth to visit the site for latest updates and the obsolete itemsof the standards.  For C, C++ and POSIX WG information is summarized as follows:


    1. JTC1/SC22/WG14 is the international standardization working group for the C programming language. The latest revision is C18 which can be found at ISO/IEC 9899:2018. The Embedded C also included under WG14.Historically, C programming language evolved from C89/C90/C95, C99, C11, C12, C18 (https://www.iso.org/standard/29237.html) and the latest isC18.

    2. The JTC1/SC22/WG21 is the international standardization working group for the C++ programming language.

    3. POSIX was under WG15 but this working group was already disbanded in September 2004.   POSIX is an Operating System interface standardized by ISO/IEC, IEEE and The Open Group.  A POSIX Advisory Group (PAG) was formed to take over some of the activities of WG15. WG15 is liaised by The Open Group (X/Open). The latest specification available is A Single UNIX Specification Version 3.

    4. This standard incorporating the IEEE Std 1003.1 and ISO/IEC 9945 and integrating the industry's Open Systems standards.  ISO/IEC 9945 consists of the following parts (The ISO/IECcodes shown above), under the general title: Information technology Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX┬«):


      1. Part 1: Base Definitions.

      2. Part 2: System Interfaces.

      3. Part 3: Shell and Utilities.

      4. Part 4: Rationale.


  3. The GNU C Library can be found atGNU.ORG and GNU C++ library can be found at GNU C++library. Both incorporate the latest ISO/IEC C and C++ standards respectively. The ANSI (American National Standards Institute) C and C++ are covered by theISO/IEC standards and they are more general.

  4. Though the performances of C and C++ still considered 'critical', the current unsecured standard C and C++ functions (libraries) such as string manipulations generated many vulnerabilities for decades. Many C and C++ implementations depend on the programmers side to make it secure. Rather than designing new C/C++ libraries from scratch, typical steps taken just doing the patches to the libraries. You can find Secure C and C++ standards published by CERT.ORG:CERT C Programming Language Secure Coding Standard andCERT C++ Programming Language Secure Coding Standard also available in the same page. You can download many pdf docs from their publication and presentation page.

  5. Other resource related to C and C++ Secure coding can be found at IEEE.org.You may want to try a certification of secure coding, GIAC Certified secure software programmers (GSSP) at SANS.org.

  6. Before the new C++ standard was gazetted, Microsoft has proposed C++/CLI and approved by ECMA (ECMA-372). This C++/CLI isimplemented in the .NET programming language family, the C++ .NET and it is a Microsoft extension to the C++. You can download and read the C++/CLI design rationale by Herb Sutter.  Some arguments from UK for this C++/CLI standardization can be found at http://www.stroustrup.com/ website and more information on this matter can be found at theregister.co.uk. At the end ISO only maintain the CLI standard and latest C++ standard: C++17. So, the C++ standards evolved from C++98, C++03 C++14, C++17 and the latest is C++20. See some thought what the creator of C++ say for the new C++ standard.



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