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Automation 8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Program examples compiled using Visual C++ 6.0 compiler on Windows XP Pro machine with Service Pack 2. The Excel version is Excel 2003/Office 11. Topics and sub topics for this tutorial are listed below. Don’t forget to read Tenouk’s small disclaimer. The supplementary notes for this tutorial are mymfc29C.xls, automation, variant and COlevariant class.

  1. CMymfc29CDoc class

  2. CMainFrame class

  3. CMymfc29CView class

  4. The Story

 

CMymfc29CDoc class

 

Add public member variables for the mymfc29CDoc class in the mymfc29CDoc.h.

 

public:

    CString m_strFigure[4];

    CAlarm * m_pAlarm;

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 5.

 

Edit/add codes for methods, properties and message handlers of the CMymfc29C1Doc class as shown in the following.

CMymfc29CDoc::CMymfc29CDoc()

{

      // TODO: add one-time construction code here

      TRACE("Entering CMymfc29CDoc ctor\n");

      m_time = COleDateTime(0, 0, 0, 5, 10, 15);

      // bogus initial values

      m_strFigure[0] = "XII"; m_strFigure[1] = "III";

      m_strFigure[2] = "VI"; m_strFigure[3] = "IX";

      m_pAlarm = NULL;

 

      EnableAutomation();

 

      AfxOleLockApp();

}

 

 

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 6.

 

VARIANT CMymfc29CDoc::GetFigure(short n)

{

   TRACE("Entering CMymfc29CDoc::GetFigure -- n = %d m_strFigure[n] = %s\n",n,m_strFigure[n]);

   return COleVariant(m_strFigure[n]).Detach();

}

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 7.

 

void CMymfc29CDoc::SetFigure(short n, const VARIANT FAR& newValue)

{

      // TODO: Add your property handler here

      TRACE("Entering CMymfc29CDoc::SetFigure -- n = %d, vt = %d\n", n, newValue.vt);

      COleVariant vaTemp;

      vaTemp.ChangeType(VT_BSTR, (COleVariant*) &newValue);

      m_strFigure[n] = vaTemp.bstrVal; // converts double-to-single

}

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 8.

 

void CMymfc29CDoc::ShowWin()

{

      // TODO: Add your dispatch handler code here

      TRACE("Entering CMymfc29CDoc::ShowWin\n");

      CRect rectWindow;

      CWnd* pFrm = AfxGetApp()->m_pMainWnd;

      pFrm->GetWindowRect(rectWindow);

      WINDOWPLACEMENT wndpl;

      wndpl.length = sizeof(WINDOWPLACEMENT);

      wndpl.showCmd = SW_SHOWNORMAL;

      wndpl.rcNormalPosition.left = rectWindow.left;

      wndpl.rcNormalPosition.top = rectWindow.top;

      wndpl.rcNormalPosition.right = rectWindow.left + 150;

      wndpl.rcNormalPosition.bottom = rectWindow.top + 150;

      pFrm->SetWindowPlacement(&wndpl);

      pFrm->ShowWindow(AfxGetApp()->m_nCmdShow);

      pFrm->UpdateWindow();

      pFrm->BringWindowToTop();

}

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 9.

 

LPDISPATCH CMymfc29CDoc::CreateAlarm(DATE time)

{

      // TODO: Add your dispatch handler code here

      TRACE("Entering CMymfc29CDoc::CreateAlarm, time = %f\n", time);

      // OLE deletes any prior CAlarm object

      m_pAlarm = new CAlarm(time);

      return m_pAlarm->GetIDispatch(FALSE);   // no AddRef here

}

 

BOOL CMymfc29CDoc::SaveModified()

{

      // TODO: Add your specialized code here and/or call the base class

      return TRUE;

}

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 10.

 

CMainFrame class

 

Add the following statement in the CMainFrame::PreCreateWindow function to disable the menu.

 

cs.hMenu = NULL;  // no menu

      return CFrameWnd::PreCreateWindow(cs);

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 11.

 

CMymfc29CView class

 

Using ClassView or manually add the following data members in mymfc29CView.h.

 

private:

   static const int nX[60];

   static const int nY[60];

   CFont m_font;

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 12.

 

Add the following in the mymfc29CView.cpp.

 

// computer-generated x-y coordinates for 60 points around a circle

const int CMymfc29CView::nX[] = {

   0, 105, 208, 309, 407, 500, 588, 669, 743, 809, 866, 914,

   951, 978, 995, 1000, 995, 978, 951, 914, 866, 809, 743, 669,

   588, 500, 407, 309, 208, 105, 0, -104, -207, -308, -406, -499,

   -587, -668, -742, -808, -865, -913, -950, -977, -994, -999, -994, -977,

   -950, -913, -865, -808, -742, -668, -587, -499, -406, -308, -207, -104 };

const int CMymfc29CView::nY[] = {

   999, 994, 978, 951, 913, 866, 809, 743, 669, 587, 499, 406,

   309, 207, 104, 0, -104, -207, -309, -406, -499, -587, -669, -743,

   -809, -866, -913, -951, -978, -994, -999, -994, -978, -951, -913, -866,

   -809, -743, -669, -587, -500, -406, -309, -207, -104, 0, 104, 207,

   309, 406, 499, 587, 669, 743, 809, 866, 913, 951, 978, 994 };

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 13.

 

Add the code for the CMymfc29CView::OnDraw() member function.

 

void CMymfc29CView::OnDraw(CDC* pDC)

{

   CMymfc29CDoc* pDoc = GetDocument();

   ASSERT_VALID(pDoc);

   CRect rectClient;

   CPen pen0(PS_SOLID, 0, (COLORREF) 0);

   CPen pen1(PS_SOLID, 20, (COLORREF) 0);

   CPen pen2(PS_SOLID, 30, (COLORREF) 0);

   int i, j, n, m, nS, nM, nH;

   CSize sz;

   pDC->SetMapMode(MM_ISOTROPIC);

   GetClientRect(rectClient);

   pDC->SetWindowExt(2400, 2400);

   pDC->SetViewportExt(rectClient.right, -rectClient.bottom);

   pDC->SetViewportOrg(rectClient.right / 2, rectClient.bottom / 2);

   pDC->SelectObject(&m_font);

   pDC->SelectObject(&pen0);

   for(i = 0; i < 60; i++) { // second/minute ticks

      pDC->MoveTo(nX[i], nY[i]);

      pDC->LineTo(nX[i] * 9 / 10, nY[i] * 9 / 10);

   }

   pDC->SelectObject(&pen1);

 

   for(i = 0; i < 12; i++) { // hour ticks

      j = i * 5;

      pDC->MoveTo(nX[j], nY[j]);

      pDC->LineTo(nX[j] * 8 / 10, nY[j] * 8 / 10);

   }

 

   for(i = 0; i < 4; i++) { // figures

      j = i * 15;

      sz = pDC->GetTextExtent(pDoc->m_strFigure[i], pDoc->m_strFigure[i].GetLength());

      n  = nX[j] * 10 / 9 - sz.cx / 2;

      m  = nY[j] * 10 / 9 + sz.cy / 2;

      pDC->TextOut(n, m, pDoc->m_strFigure[i]);

   }

 

   // draw the clock hands

   COleDateTime dt = pDoc->m_time;

   nH = dt.GetHour();

   nM = dt.GetMinute();

   nS = dt.GetSecond();

   pDC->SelectObject(&pen0);

   i = nS;

   pDC->MoveTo(0, 0);

   pDC->LineTo(nX[i], nY[i]); // seconds

 

   pDC->SelectObject(&pen1);

   i = nM;

   pDC->MoveTo(0, 0);

   pDC->LineTo(nX[i] * 8 / 10, nY[i] * 8 / 10); // minutes

 

   pDC->SelectObject(&pen2);

   i = nH * 5;

   i = (i % 60) + nM / 12;

   pDC->MoveTo(0, 0);

   pDC->LineTo(nX[i] * 6 / 10, nY[i] * 6 / 10); // hours

 

   pDC->SelectStockObject(BLACK_PEN);

   CAlarm* pAlarm;

   if((pAlarm = pDoc->m_pAlarm) != NULL) {

      COleDateTime dt = pAlarm->m_time;

      nH = dt.GetHour();

      nM = dt.GetMinute();

      nS = dt.GetSecond();

        TRACE("dt = %f, nH = %d, nM = %d, nS = %d\n", dt.m_dt, nH, nM, nS);

      i = nH * 5;

      i = (i % 60) + nM / 12;

      pDC->TextOut(nX[i] * 8 / 10, nY[i] * 8 / 10, "A"); // alarm

   }

}

 

Add the WM_CREATE Windows message handler.

 

Figure 33: Adding WM_CREATE Windows message handler to CMymfc29CView class.

 

Figure 33: Adding WM_CREATE Windows message handler to CMymfc29CView class.

 

Then, add/edit the OnCreate() code.

 

int CMymfc29CView::OnCreate(LPCREATESTRUCT lpCreateStruct)

{

   if (CView::OnCreate(lpCreateStruct) == -1)

   return -1;

   m_font.CreateFont(150, 0, 0, 0, 400, FALSE, FALSE,

               0, ANSI_CHARSET, OUT_DEFAULT_PRECIS,

               CLIP_DEFAULT_PRECIS, DEFAULT_QUALITY,

               DEFAULT_PITCH | FF_SWISS,

               "Arial");              

   return 0;

}

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 14.

 

Add the #include statement for the mymfc29CView.cpp.

 

#include "Alarm.h"

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 15.

 

Change the protected OLE dispatch map functions in mymfc29CDoc.h to public (or you can use friend keyword).

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 16.

 

Also change the protected OLE dispatch map functions in Alarm.h to public (or you can use friend keyword).

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 17.

 

Add the #include statement to the mymfc29C.cpp and mymfc29CDoc.cpp file.

 

#include "Alarm.h"

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

Listing 18.

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 19.

 

 

Build the program and make sure there is no error. Next, we need a client to test our component.

 

For the Excel, launch Excel, save the file as mymfc29C.xls and invoke the Visual Basic editor. Double-click the sheet1 on the top-left window. Copy and paste the following macros.

 

Dim Clock As Object

Dim Alarm As Object

 

Sub LoadClock()

    Set Clock = CreateObject("Mymfc29C.Document")

    Range("A3").Select

    n = 0

    Do Until n < 4

        Clock.figure(n) = Selection.Value

        Selection.Offset(0, 1).Range("A1").Select

        n = n + 1

    Loop

    RefreshClock

    Clock.ShowWin

End Sub

 

Sub RefreshClock()

    Clock.Time = Now()

    Clock.RefreshWin

End Sub

 

Sub CreateAlarm()

    Range("E3").Select

    Set Alarm = Clock.CreateAlarm(Selection.Value)

    RefreshClock

End Sub

 

Sub UnloadClock()

    Set Clock = Nothing

End Sub

 

Figure 34: Creating macros with Visual Basic editor.

 

Figure 34: Creating macros with Visual Basic editor.

 

Arrange the buttons as shown below and assign the previously created macros to the buttons appropriately. Be careful, the cells in macro code should match with the Excel cell.

 

Figure 35: mymfc29C.xls button layout.

 

Figure 35: mymfc29C.xls button layout.

 

Next, we are going to test the MYMFC29C component. Click the Load Clock button.

 

Figure 36: mymfc29C.xls, a client program in action.

 

Figure 36: mymfc29C.xls, a client program in action.

 

The following clock is launched. At the same time XII, III, VI and IX value will be displayed in the appropriate Excel cells. Type the alarm in E3 cell and click the Set Alarm button. The alarm will be set in the clock as shown in Figure 38.

 

Figure 37: Clock (component) triggered through client program (Excel).

 

Figure 37: Clock (component) triggered through client program (Excel).

 

Figure 38: Alarm was set through a client.

 

Figure 38: Alarm was set through a client.

 

Figure 39: MYMFC29C in action, component and client side-by-side.

 

Figure 39: MYMFC29C in action, component and client side-by-side.

 

The Story

 

If you're wondering why there's no menu, it's because of the following statement in the CMainFrame::PreCreateWindow function:

 

cs.hMenu = NULL;  // no menu

      return CFrameWnd::PreCreateWindow(cs);

 

 

MFC and Automation program example - C++ code snippet

 

Listing 20.

 

Close the Clock program and then click the Unload Clock button. If you've started the component program from the debugger, you can watch the Debug window for a message box that indicates that the ExitInstance() function is called.

 

AppWizard did most of the work of setting up the document as an Automation component. In the derived application class CMymfc29CApp, it generated a data member for the component, as shown here:

 

public:

    COleTemplateServer m_server;

 

The MFC COleTemplateServer class is derived from COleObjectFactory. It is designed to create a COM document object when a client calls IClassFactory::CreateInstance. The class ID comes from the global clsid variable defined in mymfc29C.cpp. The human-readable program ID (Mymfc29C.Document) comes from the IDR_MAINFRAME string resource.

 

In the InitInstance() function (in mymfc29C.cpp), AppWizard generated the code below, which connects the component object (the document) to the application's document template.

 

CSingleDocTemplate* pDocTemplate;

pDocTemplate = new CSingleDocTemplate(

    IDR_MAINFRAME,

    RUNTIME_CLASS(CMymfc29CDoc),

    RUNTIME_CLASS(CMainFrame),   // main SDI frame window

    RUNTIME_CLASS(CMymfc29CView));

AddDocTemplate(pDocTemplate);

...

...

...

m_server.ConnectTemplate(clsid, pDocTemplate, TRUE);

 

Now all the plumbing is in place for COM and the framework to construct the document, together with the view and frame. When the objects are constructed, however, the main window is not made visible. That's your job. You must write a method that shows the window.

 

The following UpdateRegistry() call from the InitInstance() function updates the Windows Registry with the contents of the project's IDR_MAINFRAME string resource:

 

m_server.UpdateRegistry(OAT_DISPATCH_OBJECT);

 

The following dispatch map in the mymfc29CDoc.cpp file shows the properties and methods for the CMymfc29CDoc class. Note that the Figure property is an indexed property that ClassWizard can generate if you specify a parameter. Later you'll see the code you have to write for the GetFigure() and SetFigure() functions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

...

BEGIN_DISPATCH_MAP(CMymfc29CDoc, CDocument)

    //{{AFX_DISPATCH_MAP(CMymfc29CDoc)

    DISP_PROPERTY_NOTIFY(CMymfc29CDoc, "Time", m_time, OnTimeChanged,

        VT_DATE)

    DISP_FUNCTION(CMymfc29CDoc, "ShowWin", ShowWin, VT_EMPTY, VTS_NONE)

    DISP_FUNCTION(CMymfc29CDoc, "CreateAlarm", CreateAlarm,

        VT_DISPATCH, VTS_DATE)

    DISP_FUNCTION(CMymfc29CDoc, "RefreshWin", Refresh, VT_EMPTY,

        VTS_NONE)

    DISP_PROPERTY_PARAM(CMymfc29CDoc, "Figure", GetFigure, SetFigure,

        VT_VARIANT, VTS_I2)

    //}}AFX_DISPATCH_MAP

END_DISPATCH_MAP()

...

 

The ShowWin() and RefreshWin() member functions aren't very interesting, but the CreateAlarm() method is worth a close look. Here's the corresponding CreateAlarm() member function:

 

LPDISPATCH CMymfc29CDoc::CreateAlarm(DATE time)

{

    TRACE("Entering CMymfc29CDoc::CreateAlarm, time = %f\n", time);

    // OLE deletes any prior CAlarm object

    m_pAlarm = new CAlarm(time);

    return m_pAlarm->GetIDispatch(FALSE);   // no AddRef() here

}

 

We've chosen to have the component create an alarm object when a controller calls CreateAlarm(). CAlarm is an Automation component class that we've generated with ClassWizard. It is not COM-creatable, which means there's no IMPLEMENT_OLECREATE macro and no class factory. The CreateAlarm() function constructs a CAlarm object and returns an IDispatch pointer. The FALSE parameter for CCmdTarget::GetIDispatch means that the reference count is not incremented; the CAlarm object already has a reference count of 1 when it is constructed.

The CAlarm class is declared in Alarm.h as follows:

 

class CAlarm : public CCmdTarget

{

    DECLARE_DYNAMIC(CAlarm)

public:

    CAlarm(DATE time);

 

// Attributes

public:

 

// Operations

public:

 

// Overrides

    // ClassWizard generated virtual function overrides

    //{{AFX_VIRTUAL(CAlarm)

    public:

    virtual void OnFinalRelease();

    //}}AFX_VIRTUAL

 

// Implementation

protected:

    virtual ~CAlarm();

 

    // Generated message map functions

    //{{AFX_MSG(CAlarm)

        // NOTE - the ClassWizard will add and remove member

        //  functions here.

    //}}AFX_MSG

 

    DECLARE_MESSAGE_MAP()

    // Generated OLE dispatch map functions

public:

    //{{AFX_DISPATCH(CAlarm)

    DATE m_time;

    //}}AFX_DISPATCH

    DECLARE_DISPATCH_MAP()

    DECLARE_INTERFACE_MAP()

};

 

Notice the absence of the DECLARE_DYNCREATE macro. Alarm.cpp contains a dispatch map, as follows:

 

BEGIN_DISPATCH_MAP(CAlarm, CCmdTarget)

    //{{AFX_DISPATCH_MAP(CAlarm)

    DISP_PROPERTY(CAlarm, "Time", m_time, VT_DATE)

    //}}AFX_DISPATCH_MAP

END_DISPATCH_MAP()

 

Why do we have a CAlarm class? We could have added an AlarmTime property in the CMymfc29CDoc class instead, but then we would have needed another property or method to turn the alarm on and off. By using the CAlarm class, what we're really doing is setting ourselves up to support multiple alarms, a collection of alarms.

To implement an Automation collection, we would write another class, CAlarms, which would contain the methods Add, Remove, and Item. Add and Remove are self-explanatory; Item returns an IDispatch pointer for a collection element identified by an index, numeric, or some other key. We would also implement a read-only Count property that returned the number of elements. The document class (which owns the collection) would have an Alarms method with an optional VARIANT parameter. If the parameter were omitted, the method would return the IDispatch pointer for the collection. If the parameter specified an index, the method would return an IDispatch pointer for the selected alarm.

If we wanted our collection to support the VBA "For Each" syntax, we'd have some more work to do. We'd add an IEnum VARIANT interface to the CAlarms class to enumerate the collection of variants and implement the Next() member function of this interface to step through the collection. Then we'd add a CAlarms method named _NewEnum that returned an IEnumVARIANT interface pointer. If we wanted the collection to be general, we'd allow separate enumerator objects (with an IEnumVARIANT interface) and we'd implement the other IEnumVARIANT functions,  Skip(), Reset(), and Clone().

The Figure property is an indexed property, which makes it interesting. The Figure property represents the four figures on the clock face, XII, III, VI, and IX. It's a CString array, so we can use Roman numerals. Here's the declaration in mymfc29CDoc.h:

 

public:

    CString m_strFigure[4];

 

And here are the GetFigure() and SetFigure() functions in mymfc29CDoc.cpp:

 

VARIANT CMymfc29CDoc::GetFigure(short n)

{

    TRACE("Entering CMymfc29CDoc::GetFigure -- n = %d m_strFigure[n] = %s\n", n, m_strFigure[n]);

    return COleVariant(m_strFigure[n]).Detach();

}

 

void CMymfc29CDoc::SetFigure(short n, const VARIANT FAR& newValue)

{

    TRACE("Entering CMymfc29CDoc::SetFigure -- n = %d, vt = %d\n", n,

          newValue.vt);

    COleVariant vaTemp;

    vaTemp.ChangeType(VT_BSTR, (COleVariant*) &newValue);

    m_strFigure[n] = vaTemp.bstrVal; // converts double-to-single

}

 

These functions tie back to the DISP_PROPERTY_PARAM macro in the CMymfc29CDoc dispatch map. The first parameter is the index number, specified as a short integer by the last macro parameter. Property indexes don't have to be integers, and the index can have several components (row and column numbers, for example). The ChangeType() call in SetFigure() is necessary because the controller might otherwise pass numbers instead of strings. You've just seen collection properties and indexed properties. What's the difference? A controller can't add or delete elements of an indexed property, but it can add elements to a collection and it can delete elements from a collection. What draws the clock face? As you might expect, it's the OnDraw() member function of the view class. This function uses GetDocument() to get a pointer to the document object, and then it accesses the document's property data members and method member functions.

The Excel macro code appears below.

 

Dim Clock As Object

Dim Alarm As Object

 

Sub LoadClock()

    Set Clock = CreateObject("Mymfc29C.Document")

    Range("A3").Select

    n = 0

    Do Until n < 4

        Clock.figure(n) = Selection.Value

        Selection.Offset(0, 1).Range("A1").Select

        n = n + 1

    Loop

    RefreshClock

    Clock.ShowWin

End Sub

 

Sub RefreshClock()

    Clock.Time = Now()

    Clock.RefreshWin

End Sub

 

Sub CreateAlarm()

    Range("E3").Select

    Set Alarm = Clock.CreateAlarm(Selection.Value)

    RefreshClock

End Sub

 

Sub UnloadClock()

    Set Clock = Nothing

End Sub

 

Notice the Set Alarm statement in the CreateAlarm macro. It calls the CreateAlarm method to return an IDispatch pointer, which is stored in an object variable. If the macro is run a second time, a new alarm is created, but the original one is destroyed because its reference count goes to 0.

You've seen a modal dialog in a DLL (MYMFC29B) and you've seen a main frame window in an EXE (MYMFC29C). Be careful with modal dialogs in EXEs. It's fine to have an About dialog that is invoked directly by the component program, but it isn't a good idea to invoke a modal dialog in an out-of-process component method function. The problem is that once the modal dialog is on the screen, the user can switch back to the client program. MFC clients handle this situation with a special "Server Busy" message box, which appears right away. Excel does something similar, but it waits 30 seconds, and this could confuse the user.

 

 

Continue on next module...

 

----------------End Automation part 3------------

 

 

 

 

 

 

Further reading and digging:

  1. DCOM at MSDN.

  2. COM+ at MSDN.

  3. COM at MSDN.

  4. Win32 process, thread and synchronization story can be found starting from Module R.

  5. MSDN MFC 7.0 class library online documentation.

  6. MSDN MFC 9.0 class library online documentation - latest version.

  7. MSDN Library

  8. Windows data type.

  9. Win32 programming Tutorial.

  10. The best of C/C++, MFC, Windows and other related books.

  11. Unicode and Multibyte character set: Story and program examples.

 

 

 

 


 

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